COMPUTER SCIENCE: Computer science is a discipline that involves the understanding and design of computers and computational processes. In its most general form it is concerned with the understanding of information transfer and transformation. Particular interest is placed on making processes efficient and endowing them with some form of intelligence. The discipline ranges from theoretical studies of algorithms, functionalities, to practical problems of implementation in terms of computational hardware and software. There are many different specializations under its broad Spectrum.
Few of the most popular ones are being listed below:
1. SOFTWARE ENGINEERING: A still-evolving discipline based on computer science, computer technology, management, and engineering economics. Concerned with the cost- effective development and modification of computer software components, software engineering may use computer-aided software engineering (CASE) to reduce the time required by programmers to generate new programs and revise old ones. Courses in software engineering may be available through undergraduate computer science departments; advanced study is available at the graduate level.
2. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS: MIS programs emphasize the understanding and application of computer technology to organizational problems, the design of computer-based systems for data processing, and the design of decision-support systems for management. University business departments may offer undergraduate courses and programs in MIS; many graduate business schools provide advanced study in MIS. Since there has been paradigm shift in demand for professionals in Data Analytics, Data Warehousing, more and more students are getting inclined towards MIS.
3. DATABASE MANAGEMENT: Involves the study of systems, known as databases that can efficiently store, process, and retrieve substantial quantities of information. Undergraduate computer science programs may offer introductory database courses although advanced study, including analysis and design of relational, network, and hierarchical databases, generally occurs at the graduate level.
4. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: AI is a complex, highly interdisciplinary branch of computer science that attempts to incorporate the principles of human intelligence and reasoning into computing systems. AI research is concerned with modeling all facets of human intelligence, but most often the research involves creating computer systems that have the ability to plan (automated deduction), adapt to different situations (machine learning), acquire human-like senses (machine vision and natural-language processing), and effect changes to the environment (robotics). Introductory courses in AI are offered at the undergraduate level; in- depth study is available at the graduate level.
5. COMPUTER NETWORKS: The study of the principles of communication between computers. Computer networking emphasizes the design of local area networks (LANs), which connect computers within a small geographical area, and wide area networks (WANs), which use telephone lines or radio waves to connect computers thousands of miles apart. B.S. degree programs generally offer introductory networking courses; graduate programs offer advanced courses in network architecture, communication protocols, and network topology. With the advent of new technologies in transmission of data making it cheaper and faster, it has limitless possibilities.
6. BIO INFORMATICS: Bioinformatics is the application of computer technology to the management of biological information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied to gene-based drug discovery and development. The need for Bioinformatics capabilities has been precipitated by the explosion of publicly available genomic information resulting from the Human Genome Project. Bioinformatics is at Infant stage but keeping in view the advancements and breakthroughs in Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, it has become area of focus most of the top IT companies and universities.
7. HUMAN COMPUTER INTERFACE: Human-computer interaction (HCI) is an area of research and practice that emerged in the early 1980s, initially as a specialty area in computer science embracing cognitive science and human factors engineering. HCI has expanded rapidly and steadily for three decades, attracting professionals from many other disciplines and incorporating diverse concepts and approaches. To a considerable extent, HCI now aggregates a collection of semi-autonomous fields of research and practice in human-centered informatics. However, the continuing synthesis of disparate conceptions and approaches to science and practice in HCI has produced a dramatic example of how different epistemologies and paradigms can be reconciled and integrated in a vibrant and productive intellectual project
8. DATA WAREHOUSING & DATA MINING: Data warehouse is a subject-oriented, integrated, time-variant and non-volatile collection of data in support of management’s decision making process. A data warehouse is a copy of transaction data specifically structured for query and analysis. Subject-Oriented: A data warehouse can be used to analyze a particular subject area. For example, “sales” can be a particular subject. Integrated: A data warehouse integrates data from multiple data sources. For example, source A and source B may have different ways of identifying a product, but in a data warehouse, there will be only a single way of identifying a product. Time-Variant: Historical data is kept in a data warehouse. For example, one can retrieve data from 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, or even older data from a data warehouse. This contrasts with a transactions system, where often only the most recent data is kept. For example, a transaction system may hold the most recent address of a customer, where a data warehouse can hold all addresses associated with a customer. Non-volatile: Once data is in the data warehouse, it will not change. So, historical data in a data warehouse should never be altered. Computational progress in last 30 years has resulted in storage of trillions of Megabyte of data in various formats. All major companies are looking to normalize the data and to get the reports based on parameters as per their requirements using Data Mining Techniques.
9. WEB TECHNOLOGIES & WEB DESIGNS: Web technology relates to the interface between web servers and their clients. It includes markup languages, programming interfaces and languages, and standards for document identification and display. Ex. HTML, XML, CGI PERL etc.
10. NETWORK SECURITY: Network security involves all activities that organizations, enterprises, and institutions undertake to protect the value and ongoing usability of assets and the integrity and continuity of operations. An effective network security strategy requires identifying threats and then choosing the most effective set of tools to combat them. Ex: Antivirus, VPN’s, Encryption
11. E-COMMERCE: Electronic commerce or ecommerce is a term for any type of business, or commercial transaction, that involves the transfer of information across the Internet. It covers a range of different types of businesses, from consumer based retail sites, through auction or music sites, to business exchanges trading goods and services between corporations. It is currently one of the most important aspects of the Internet to emerge.
12. COMPUTER GAMES TECHNOLOGY: Games technology is at the forefront of computer science development. Students will gain knowledge of human / computer interaction, software development and implementation and hardware design concepts. Students may choose the industry placement program and gain exposure to industry leaders in games technology.
13. IT PROJECT MANAGEMENT: IT project management is an area of project management that has an emphasis on computer technology. This form of project management differs from other management systems in the way that it deals specifically with how information is handled via both software and hardware.
14. INFORMATION SCIENCE: This rapidly expanding interdisciplinary field examines the nature of information itself as well as the processes by which information transfer occurs. Drawing on other fields such as telecommunications, computer science, linguistics, philosophy, mathematics, psychology, and sociology, information science involves the analysis and development of systems for the storage and dissemination of information using computers, telecommunications, or other technologies. Courses may be offered at the B.S. degree level; graduate computer science programs provide opportunities for advanced study.
15. MS PREDICTIVE MANAGEMENT: focused on data that are analysed over the long term with the goal of planning management tasks on time in order to minimise proactive management and thus optimise the availability of the business services. In predictive management, the emphasis is on collecting a lot of data, categorising this data and drawing conclusions from this data regarding the future behaviour of the infrastructure. This helps prevent incidents and problems in the areas of availability, capacity, performance and user experience. In contrast to proactive management, the management is able to see at a much earlier stage that the guaranteed availability of the business service is in danger.
16. DATA PROCESSING: A broad, often confusing term used to describe a wide range of fields involving the study of how data is stored in computers (for example, stacks, queues, and files) and how data can be processed to solve accounting and management problems. In most cases, data processing courses and programs are offered through business rather than computer science departments. Programs offered by technical colleges (often called data processing technology programs) provide vocational training in data entry and computer operations. Four-year colleges and universities may offer data processing programs that combine study of management and computer science. Such programs are often intended to train managers, known as electronic data processing (EDP ) managers, to run complex computer centers. At the graduate level, data processing-related subjects may be included as part of management information systems or information science degree programs.
17. KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING: Knowledge engineering is a subfield of artificial intelligence that produces a type of computer system called an expert system. Expert systems are computer programs designed to perform at the level of the hum an expert. solving problems that are beyond the capability of conventional computer systems. Introductory courses are sometimes offered at the undergraduate level; in-depth study is available at the graduate level.
18. COMPUTER ENGINEERING: A broad discipline that incorporates the fields of computer science and electrical engineering. Computer engineering emphasizes the theory, design, and development of computers and computer-related technology including both hardware and software. B.S. degree programs in computer engineering are most often available through engineering schools but also may be offered by computer science departments. Graduate programs provide opportunities for advanced study in computer engineering.
19. COGNITIVE SCIENCE: A branch of computer science that is concerned with understanding, simulating, and enhancing both natural and artificial intelligence. Highly interdisciplinary in nature, cognitive science draws from research in artificial intelligence, psychology, anthropology, linguistics, philosophy, neuroscience, and engineering. A few U.S. institutions offer interdisciplinary bachelor’s degree programs in cognitive science; more often, however, this specialization is available at the graduate level.
20. COMPUTER GRAPHICS & ANIMATION TECHNOLOGY: This specialization, which is related to graphic design and the visual arts, combines video and computer technologies to produce two-, three-, and four-dimensional graphic images (such as those seen in video games and computer- animated films) using computers. The content and emphasis of computer graphics programs vary greatly depending on the level of study and the department through which the program is offered. Programs are offered at the undergraduate and graduate levels, with the graduate programs focusing on more theoretical, complex areas.
21. ROBOTICS: A branch of computer science that applies artificial intelligence and engineering concepts to create and program mechanical devices (robots) that are able to perform a variety of tasks including some previously performed by humans. Many technical and community colleges offer associate degree programs in robotics technology, which involves troubleshooting and maintaining robots; courses emphasizing the theory and design of robots may be offered through B.S. programs; advanced robotics study is available through graduate programs.
22. COMPUTER INFORMATION SYSTEMS: This specialization, which is closely related to management information systems and information science, integrates the computer applications of data processing with problem solving to improve the efficiency of organizations. Course work in CIS may be available through undergraduate computer science or business degree programs; specialization may be available through graduate programs.
23. COMPUTER SERVICING TECHNOLOGY: The study of how to install, repair, and maintain computers and related equipment. Associate degree or certificate programs are offered by many technical and community colleges.