CIVIL ENGINEERING: In general, it is the branch of engineering which deals with the planning, design, construction and maintenance of the structures like buildings, roads, bridges, canals, dams, water supply and treatment systems etc. The civil engineering profession recognizes the reality of limited natural resources, the desire for sustainable practices (including life-cycle analysis and sustainable design techniques), and the need for social equity in the consumption of resources. The basic responsibilities of a civil engineer is to plan and design a structure and analyze its various aspects, make a regular inspection in the site to ensure that the construction is going according to the plan and to make the necessary amendments in the project if required during the course of construction. Civil engineer has to make sure that the project is cost effective and structure is of required strength and safety. The civil engineer holds the safety, health, and welfare of the public paramount. Civil engineering projects and systems should compliance with governmental guidelines and regulations; should be built economically to function properly with a minimum of maintenance and repair while withstanding anticipated usage and weather; and should conserve energy and allow hazard-free construction while providing healthful, safe, and environmentally sound utilization by society. It has a broader spectrum and comprises of many sub-disciplines under it.
1. TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING: It is the transportation engineer’s responsibility to plan, design, build, operate and maintain these systems of transport, in such a way as to provide for the safe, efficient and convenient movement of people and goods. Increasing environmental concerns have revived an interest in the development and management of public transportation systems. Professional activities can range from road and transit design and operation at the urban scale, to railroad, seaway and airport location, construction and operation at the regional and national scale. They focus on automobile infrastructures, although it also encompasses sea, air and rail systems. Automobile infrastructures can be split into the traditional area of highway design and planning, and the rapidly growing area of traffic control systems. The transportation engineer faces the challenge of developing both network links and major terminals to satisfy transportation demands, with due regard for the resultant land-use, environmental and other impacts of these facilities.
A. HIGHWAY ENGINEERING: branch of civil engineering that includes planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of roads, bridges, and related infrastructure to ensure effective movement of people and goods. Highway planning involves the estimation of current and future traffic volumes on the road network. For purposes of design, traffic volumes are needed for a representative period of traffic flow. The capacity is the maximum theoretical traffic flow rate that a highway section is capable of accommodating under a given set of environmental, highway, and traffic conditions. The capacity of a highway depends on factors such as the number of lanes, lane width, effectiveness of traffic control systems, frequency and duration of traffic incidents, and efficiency of collection and dissemination of highway traffic information.
B. BRIDGE ENGINEERING: A Branch of Civil Engineering
C. TRAFFIC ENGINEERING: Traffic Engineering is that phase of engineering which deals with the planning, geometric design and traffic operations of roads, streets, and highways, their networks, terminals, abutting lands and relationships with other modes of transportation for the achievement of safe, efficient, and convenient movement of persons and goods. Traffic Engineering applies engineering principles to help solve transportation problems, and brings into play a knowledge of psychology and habits of users of the transportation systems
D. TRANSIT ENGINEERING: Railway engineering is a discipline within Civil Engineering that looks at the design, maintenance, and behavior of the railroad track infrastructure. The railway infrastructure includes track, bridges, and other infrastructure elements for passenger and freight railway and transit systems (both heavy and light rail). Railway engineering includes the short and long term behavior of the track structure and its major components under traffic and environmental loading, both static and dynamic. It also includes the dynamic interaction between the vehicles and the track structure, the localized interaction between the wheel and the rail, the interaction between each of the elements of the track structure and the long term behavior of the infrastructure under railroad and/or transit operations.
2. STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING: Structural engineers are concerned with the conception, analysis, design and construction of components or assemblies to resist loads arising from internal and external forces. Solid mechanics is the study of the distribution of stresses that a given load produces when applied to a solid element, and the calculation of the resulting strains, given the characteristics of the materials that make up that element. The application of solid mechanics enables the structural engineer to assemble elements, such as beams and columns, into a structure that will resist both static and dynamic loads, such as gravity, wind, snow and earthquakes. In addition to steel and concrete, new materials that are being developed and used in structural engineering include reinforced plastics and polymers. The rehabilitation of existing structures weakened by corrosion continues to be an important task. While typical civil engineering structures include large buildings, bridges and dams, graduates with a specialization in structural engineering may also be concerned with designing the structures of machinery, vehicles, aircraft and spacecraft. Employment opportunities include work with consulting structural engineers, construction companies, building development companies, engineering departments of private corporations, aircraft and aerospace related companies, public utilities, and government agencies
A. Building Structural
B. Bridge Structural
3. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING: Environmental engineers study water, soil and air pollution problems, and develop technical solutions needed to solve, attenuate or control these problems in a manner that is compatible with legislative, economic, social and political concerns. Civil engineers are particularly involved in such activities as water supply and sewerage, management of surface water and groundwater quality, remediation of contaminated sites and solid waste management. The activities of such engineers include, but are not limited to, the planning, design, construction and operation of water and wastewater treatment facilities in municipalities and industries, modelling and analysis of surface water and groundwater quality, design of soil and remediation systems, planning for the disposal and reuse of wastewaters and sludges, and the collection, transport, processing, recovery and disposal of solid wastes according to accepted engineering practices. Environmental engineers are called upon to play an important role in environmental protection, because engineering solutions are required to meet the environmental standards set by legislation. Consulting firms, municipalities, government agencies, industries and non-governmental organizations and specialized contractors are potential employers for civil engineers with a specialization in environmental engineering.
4. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING: Geotechnical engineering is the study of the behaviour of soils under the influence of loading forces and soil-water interactions. This knowledge is applied to the design of foundations, retaining walls, earth dams, clay liners, and geosynthetics for waste containment. The goals of geotechnical engineers could range from the design of foundations and temporary excavation support, through route selection for railways and highways, to the increasingly important areas of landfill disposal of wastes and groundwater contamination. As such, the geotechnical engineer is involved in field and laboratory investigations to determine the engineering properties of site soils and other geomaterials and their subsequent use in the analytical study of the problem at hand. Recent computational and computer advances are extending our ability to predict the behaviour of soil and soil-water systems under a wide variety of conditions. In recent years, the activities of geotechnical engineers have also involved geo-environmental engineering. Geo-environmental engineers design strategies for the clean-up of contaminated soils and groundwater and develop management systems for contaminated sites.
5. TUNNEL ENGINEERING: The construction of tunnels under wide and deep waterways or rugged mountains requires special consideration to the design as well as the execution. Some of the technical and practical challenges related to the planning, design and construction are Topography, Geo technical Survey, Knowledge of TBM’s, Durability, weather patterns, Tunnel Ventilation, safety etc.
6. CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT: It is the process of overseeing projects for residential, commercial and industrial construction. Construction managers direct and coordinate projects to maximize efficiency in the building process. Depending on their level of experience, they may supervise an entire project, or a portion of one. Construction managers schedule and coordinate construction processes including licensing, material supply chains, safety code compliance and both budget and timeline projections. typically they do not perform actual construction tasks. Depending on the company, this position may also be referred to as a project manager, construction superintendent, project supervisor or general contractor. These managers supervise the construction process from initial design to the final walk-through, making sure each stage gets completed on time and on budget. They often coordinate with many different stakeholders: owners, engineers, architects and craftspeople. Construction managers also find, contract with and supervise tradespeople for specific tasks such as painting, plumbing and carpeting. In a very large project there may also be multiple construction managers who work together towards the final goal. For example, in the construction of a large industrial complex there may be a site manager, landscaping manager, building systems manager and structural manager.
7. HYDRAULIC AND WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING: Water resources engineering is the quantitative study of the hydrologic cycle — the distribution and circulation of water linking the earth’s atmosphere, land and oceans. Surface runoff is measured as the difference between precipitation and abstractions, such as infiltration (which replenishes groundwater flow), surface storage and evaporation. Applications include the management of the urban water supply, the design of urban storm-sewer systems, and flood forecasting. Hydraulic engineering consists of the application of fluid mechanics to water flowing in an isolated environment (pipe, pump) or in an open channel (river, lake, ocean). Civil engineers are primarily concerned with open channel flow, which is governed by the interdependent interaction between the water and the channel. Applications include the design of hydraulic structures, such as sewage conduits, dams and breakwaters, the management of waterways, such as erosion protection and flood protection, and environmental management, such as prediction of the mixing and transport of pollutants in surface water. Hydroelectric-power development, water supply, irrigation and navigation are some familiar applications of water resources engineering involving the utilization of water for beneficial purposes. More recently, concern for preserving our natural environment and meeting the needs of developing countries has increased the importance of water resources engineering.